Botox, a neuro relaxant remedy based on the refined and purified botulinum toxin type A (clostridium botulinum) from Allergan, is one of the most popular and in-demand drugs for cosmetic purposes and therapeutic medical conditions. In the past, it was a dangerous poison, but now, after hundreds of clinical trials and researches, it is one of the most well-studied drugs in the world with thousands of Botox injections performed worldwide annually to solve cosmetic and health problems. Having a direct impact on the nervous system, the drug helps reduce the symptoms starting with overactive bladder to excessive sweating and elimination of aging wrinkles on the skin of the face.
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Drugs affecting neuromuscular transmission.
Botox is a lyophilisate for the preparation of a solution for intramuscular administration. 1 vial of remedy contains 100 units of complex botulinum toxin type A – hemagglutinin. It also includes excipients: human plasma albumin – 500 mcg; sodium chloride – 900 mcg.
Each cardboard contains 1 vial; 1 vial contains 100 units.
The botulinum toxin molecule consists of heavy (with a molecular weight of 100,000 Da) and light (with a molecular weight of 50,000 Da) chains linked by a disulfide bridge. The first step in the action of botulinum toxin is the specific binding of the molecule to the presynaptic membrane. This process takes 30 minutes. The second stage is the penetration of the bound toxin into the cytosol of the nerve through endocytosis. Intracellularly, the light chain acts as a Zn2 + -dependent cytosolic protease, selectively cleaving SNAP-25, which in the third step leads to a blockade of acetylcholine release from the presynaptic terminals of cholinergic neurons. The end effect of this process is persistent chemodenervation.
With the intramuscular administration of Botox, 2 effects develop: direct inhibition of extrafusal fibers by inhibition of alpha-motor neurons at the level of the neuromuscular synapse and inhibition of muscle spindle activity by inhibition of the gamma-motor neuron cholinergic synapse on the intrafusal fiber. A decrease in gamma activity leads to relaxation of the intrafusal fibers spindle and decreases the activity of 1a-afferents.
Along with the process of denervation in these muscles, the process of reinnervation occurs through the appearance of lateral processes of nerve endings, which leads to the restoration of muscle contractions 4–6 months after the procedure.
Antibodies to botulinum toxin with hemagglutinin are formed in 1–5% of patients after repeated injections of Botox®. The formation of antibodies is facilitated by the administration of the drug in high doses (> 250 U) and repeated injections in small doses at short intervals. In the case of the formation of antibodies to botulinum toxin, the effect of the subsequent reaction may be reduced.
The doctors use Botox to treat:
The doctors may be using Botox treatment to:
The patient receiving injections of Botox cosmetic or therapeutic treatments should not have any of the listed contraindications:
Botox is contraindicated during pregnancy and lactation.
The possible reactions of the organism to Botox treatment include the following conditions:
Local reactions: 2–5% of cases – microhematomas like symptoms: pain, swelling or bruising, redness (up to 7 days), pain at the injection site (up to 1 day).
Systemic reactions: temporary slight general weakness within 1 week (occur when using the drug in doses exceeding the maximum allowable – more than 250 units).
Reactions associated with the spread of the drug to muscle groups located near the injection site: extremely rarely – ptosis of the eyelids, drooping of the brow region, lateral areas of the eyebrows, impaired accommodation, asymmetry of the corners of the mouth, impaired articulation, numbness of the lips.
As a rule, these side effects do not require additional therapy and regress within 1 month after injections. Complications after injections are extremely rare and can occur with needle trauma to nerves or blood vessels in the event of an unskilled procedure.
The effect of Botox injections are enhanced by the simultaneous use of antibiotics of the aminoglycoside group, erythromycin, tetracycline, lincomycin, polymyxins; remedies that reduce neuromuscular transmission (including curariform muscle relaxants).
Intramuscular treatment. Doses of Botox and injection points are determined individually for each patient in accordance with the nature, severity, and localization of muscle hyperactivity. In some cases, electromyographic control is used to more accurately localize the injected muscles.
Symptoms: general weakness, paresis of the injected muscles are possible.
Treatment: requires constant monitoring of the dynamics of symptoms; the appointment of anticholinesterase drugs, if necessary, carry out resuscitation measures. The introduction of a specific antitoxin (anti-botulinum serum type A) in accordance with the instructions for use is effective within 30 minutes after injection of botulinum toxin.
Botox injections must be carried out by a highly qualified doctor with special training and permission from the manufacturer. Injections can be performed on an outpatient basis in a treatment room in the clinic.
Botox is dispensed, stored, and used exclusively in specialized medical institutions. The drug is stored in a separate, closed, labeled box in the refrigerator.
The effects are temporary and last from 4 to 6 months.
At a temperature of 2–8 ° C or -5 ° C or below.
Keep out of the reach of children.
Do not use after the expiration date printed on the package.
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On our website, DKderma.com, you can buy Botox from Allergan in all its variations:
Moreover, we offer other brands of botulinum toxin products:
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